Dyslexia is the most common type of specific learning difficulty that children and young people are likely to experience with approximately 4-10% of the population having some degree of specific learning difficulty with literacy, including dyslexia.
‘Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.’Sir Jim Rose, 2009
In addition, short-term memory, numeracy, concentration and personal organisation may be affected. Speech, language and communication difficulties may also coexist. Dyslexia occurs across a range of intellectual abilities. It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut-off points. There is a growing body of research relating to the factors which may contribute to literacy difficulties. A summary of these factors is given in the ‘factors affecting literacy’ document.
What do you notice about the child or young person?
You observe the child / young person may have difficulty with: skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling; difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed.
What can help?
The provision for literacy difficulties and dyslexia is similar.
The following resources and materials maybe of help.
- The Education Endowment Foundation contains guidance reports with clear and actionable recommendations for teachers to support literacy. Kelly, K and Phillips S. (2018) “Teaching Literacy to Learners with Dyslexia,” London: Sage
- Inclusion Development Programme (IDP) : a suite of training materials for schools to increase their knowledge and skill around difficulties with Literacy and Dyslexia.
- British Dyslexia Association : information for parents and professionals.
- Made By Dyslexia a global charity run by adults with dyslexia which addresses perceptions of dyslexia and explores the ‘differences in dyslexic thinking’.
- See Dyslexia Differently : an animation developed by the British Dyslexia Association.
- TES guide to precision teaching. A useful pack of resources collated by the Times Educational Supplement.
- Dyslexia-SpLD Trust Framework: information on The Literacy and Dyslexia-SpLD Professional Development Framework
- Chrome Book Apps for learners with Dyslexia
- Android Apps for Learners with Dyslexia / Reading and Writing Difficulties
- ‘What works for children with literacy difficulties’ a range of interventions for literacy difficulties written by Greg Brooks
- Information on paired reading by the National Literacy Trust.
- Cambugs app. A phonics application that teaches children the initial phonemes (letter sounds) which are the first step on their journey to become fluent, confident readers.
Other evidence-based intervention include:
- For reading: Toe-By-Toe, Paired Reading, Read-Write-Inc, and Reading Recovery.
- For reading comprehension: Inference Training.
- For writing: AcceleWrite, Read Write Inc, Paired Writing.
- For spelling: Cued Spelling and Read Write Inc.
Speech and Language Checklists:
- I CAN Talking point checklist for secondary teachers on language: information for parents and professionals.
- From Communication Trust: What’s typical talk for Primary: an informative summary poster of milestones of language development for primary children.
- From Communication Trust: What’s typical talk at secondary: an informative summary poster of milestones of language development for secondary aged children.
Resources from Bradford Schools Online.
- How to support reading difficulties
- How to support spelling difficulties
- How to support working memory difficulties
- Indicators of Dyslexia
- Supporting dyslexic pupils in the classroom
- Text-to-Speech Software
- Developing Handwriting Skills
- Wiltshire early screening for dyslexia File 1. Aimed at Key Stage 1 gives further information, assessment materials and intervention materials for phonological awareness and phonological processing.
- Wiltshire early screening for dyslexia File 2 (aimed at KS2) gives further information, assessment materials and intervention materials for phonological awareness and phonological processing.
Last updated 6 October 2020