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Dyslexia is the most common type of specific learning difficulty that children and young people are likely to experience with approximately 4-10% of the population having some degree of specific learning difficulty with literacy, including dyslexia.

‘Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling.’

Sir Jim Rose, 2009

In addition, short-term memory, numeracy, concentration and personal organisation may be affected. Speech, language and communication difficulties may also coexist. Dyslexia occurs across a range of intellectual abilities. It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut-off points. There is a growing body of research relating to the factors which may contribute to literacy difficulties. A summary of these factors is given in the ‘factors affecting literacy development’ page.

What do you notice about the child or young person?

You observe the child / young person may have difficulty with: skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling; difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed.

What can help?

The provision for literacy difficulties and dyslexia is similar.

The following resources and materials maybe of help.

  • The Education Endowment Foundation contains guidance reports with clear and actionable recommendations for teachers to support literacy. Kelly, K and Phillips S. (2018) “Teaching Literacy to Learners with Dyslexia,” London: Sage
  • Made By Dyslexia a global charity run by adults with dyslexia which addresses perceptions of dyslexia and explores the ‘differences in dyslexic thinking’.
  • Dyslexia Scotland: various resources can be found here including the Dyslexia Toolkit for teachers.

Ipad Apps for:


Other evidence-based intervention include:

  • For reading: Toe-By-Toe, Paired Reading, Read-Write-Inc, and Reading Recovery.
  • For reading comprehension: Inference Training.
  • For writing: AcceleWrite, Read Write Inc, Paired Writing.
  • For spelling: Cued Spelling and Read Write Inc. 

Speech and Language Checklists:

  • Universally Speaking : A summary of the ages and stages of young people’s communication development from 11 to 18.

Resources from Bradford Schools Online.

Screening tools

Last updated 19 June 2023

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